​Parent Student Handbook

Parent Student Handbook

The Parent Handbook provides parents with:

  1. Information of both an academic and general nature,
  2. Details of rules, policies and procedures across the school,
  3. and the Student Code of Conduct.

Students and parents are encourage to read and understand the provisions herein. Save for the rules, policies, procedures and the Student Code of Conduct, the information contained within this handbook is meant to serve as a guide only and does not purport to create any legal obligations.

Please consult with your child's Principal or any of our administrative departments if you have further queries or any questions that have not been answered in this handbook. The information in this handbook is relevant to the 2016/2017 Academic School Year.

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Section 1: Introduction

1.1 Purpose of this Handbook

1.2 Welcome Note from the Head of School

1.3 Mission, Vision and Core Values

1.4 School Culture

1.5 CIS Learning Principles

1.6 School Hours and Daily Timetable

1.7 School Calendar

1.8 Security on Campus Students Parents Visitors Car Decals

1.9 Parking on Campus

1.10 Arrival and Departure from School

1.11 Contact Us


Section 1: Introduction

1.1 Purpose of this Handbook

The purpose of this handbook is to ensure that all students/parents are familiar with school rules and regulations, policies and where to go if they have a problem. Please take the time to read this handbook as it contains some critical information.

1.2 Welcome Note from the Head of School

A Message from the Head of School, Dr. Glenn Odland Welcome to the Canadian International School (CIS) in Singapore. As you walk through the halls of our school, we hope you gain a sense of our school community, and the diverse talents, nationalities and traditions that give our school its strong commitment to excellence and humanistic ideals.Being an international school, we enjoy the benefits of a multitude of cultures. This creates a truly global perspective that is interwoven throughout our daily lives as we strive to provide a high quality education aimed at preparing our students for their future. It is our mandate to equip our children to thrive in whatever paths their future goals take them. To achieve that, we know it is imperative to forge a strong partnership with you, our parents.Thank you for entrusting your children to us, and for teaming with us in their education. While we are proud of the breadth and depth of our programmes, it is our teachers who truly make the difference. It is their capacity to foster learning in our students that sets us apart. At CIS, you will find a community of open, friendly, inquisitive, caring and engaged learners. When you step into a CIS classroom, you experience excitement, vitality and a feeling of accomplishment from the students and their teachers. The synergy generated by the team immediately makes teaching and learning a joy, as the laughter and smiles are heard, seen and felt. Indeed, a positive learning environment is not just a pleasant feature; it is the foundation for good learning!I look forward to a great year and to meeting all the new and returning children and parents as we continue to make the Canadian International School a great place for kids.

Warm regards,
Dr. Glenn Odland
Head of School

1.3 Mission, Vision and Core Values

MissionEngage. Enlighten. Empower.VisionCIS will provide extraordinary learning opportunities for the globally connected student. A nurturing environment, an international curriculum, and a culturally diverse community will facilitate exceptional achievements. Together we will take action to make the world a better place.Core ValuesRespect:We respect ourselves and respect others for their special talents, skills and contributions.Commitment:We keep our promises and will fulfill all our commitments.Integrity:We believe that integrity is the heart of all lasting relationships and endeavours, and will work with each other in good faith.Collaboration:We will cooperate with each other, learn and have fun together to achieve things which are of significance.Responsibility:We take pride in all that we do and are accountable for our actions.

1.4 School Culture

CIS offers students an opportunity to develop through a diverse and challenging curriculum and a wide range of activities. Students are given ownership of the learning process and are encouraged to actively participate in their own education by setting personal goals and practicing on-going self-evaluation. Our inquiry-based programmes and activities encourage students to discover their interests and strengths. All of this is done in a safe, caring and supportive school environment that fosters positive attitudes and allows students to challenge themselves and be risk-takers, without the fear of being judged.

1.5 CIS Learning Principles

Read more about our Learning Principles here.

1.6 School Hours and Daily Timetable

1.6.1 School Hours

The school day for all students runs from 8:30am to 3:30pm. Students who do not travel on the bus are advised to be at school by 8:25am.Key Dates for the 2016/2017 School Year are as follows:

  • First Day of the School Year/Semester 1: 15 August 2016
  • October Break: 10 October 2016 to 23 October 2016
  • December/January Break: 19 December 2016 to 9 January 2017
  • First Day of Semester 2: 23 January 2017
  • April Break: 27 March, 2017 to 7 April 2017
  • Final Day of the School Year: 17 June 2017 (half day for students)

1.6.2 Office Hours

  • Monday to Friday: 7:45am to 5:00pm
    (Lakeside reception phone lines remain open until 6:00pm.)
  • Saturday: 8:30am to 12:30pm (Lakeside only)

1.6.3 School Timetable

1.7 School Calendar

The school calendar can be viewed here. A summary of the key semester and non-school dates can be viewed here.

1.8 Security on Campus

Security is of the utmost importance to all at CIS, and we aim to provide a safe and secure environment for the entire CIS community. CIS employs 24-hour security guards at both campuses to secure the entrances and perimeter of the school grounds.Everyone who enters CIS is required to show photo ID to our security personnel with the exception of CIS students in uniform.

Students

Students in Grades 4 to 12 are provided with a Campus card (a stored value photo ID card) which will be checked when entering the campus grounds.This Campus card is also used to purchase food in the school canteen (and Vive Cafe at Lakeside). Lost Student CardsStudents who lose their Campus Online/ID card must pay $20.00 to be issued with a replacement card. Replacement cards will be ready for collection from the Sodexo Administration office on your campus in 3 working days. Please note the following key points of this process:

  1. Complete the Campus Online Student Card replacement form.
  2. Submit the form to the Sodexo Office on your campus and pay the $20 for the replacement card. An official receipt will be issued. At this point, you will be provided with a red slip which will facilitate cash purchases in the canteen/cafe until the new card is ready for collection.
  3. After 3 working days, please proceed to the Sodexo Administration office to collect your new card.
Questions regarding ID cards can be directed to idcards@cis.edu.sg

Parents

All CIS parents are provided with a photo ID card when their children start at CIS. These cards must be displayed at all times when on campus.Each family is provided with three ID cards free of charge. Additional or replacement cards can be be provided at a cost of $20 per card. To request an additional or replacement card, please download the application form here and return it to the school with the required passport photo.New families who do not yet have their CIS ID cards must show their letter of acceptance to enter the campus. Temporary ID cards can then be collected from main reception.

Visitors

Visitors are required to sign in at the front gate and will be issued with a visitor's pass before they can enter CIS' grounds. After receiving a visitors pass, all visitors must report to the front office for further identification and to sign-in.

Car Decals

All private cars entering CIS grounds must display the official CIS car decal.Decals can be collected during orientation or from the main office on each campus. Lakeside parents will be asked to submit the details of their IU device at the time of the decal request. Car decals change each year and are issued on an annual basis. They must be surrendered to the school when students graduate or withdraw.

1.9 Parking on Campus

1.9.1 Lakeside Campus

There are approximately 200 car parks onsite. Parking is on a first-come, first-served basis. If car parks are full, parents will have to park in nearby HDB public car parks. Parents can register their In-Vehicle Unit (IU) and obtain a parking decal, either at Security or at the reception counter in the Main Office.

1.9.2 Tanjong Katong Campus

There is no parking on campus between 8am and 8:30am, or between 2:45pm and 3:45pm. If you are driving to school and would like to walk your child to their classroom, please park in the public parking lot adjacent to our campus and enter through the pedestrian gate. This gate has been installed to allow parents and students safe passage when entering and leaving campus. This will keep the parking lot free for the entry and exit of the buses during this time. If you are parking in the school parking lot, you must have a parking decal which can be obtained from the main office or Security office.

1.10 Arrival and Departure from School

1.10.1 Lakeside Campus

Morning Bus Drop Off

Students who catch the school bus to school will be dropped in the bus bay off by approximately 8:25am. A dedicated drop off zone in the bus bay ensures student safety. Upon arriving on campus in the morning, buses will queue and enter the bus bay in an orderly fashion. Six buses are able to enter the designated bus drop off zone at any one time.Students will alight the bus, under the supervision of principals, teachers and educational assistants. Younger children will be grouped and chaperoned to the canteen on the second floor. Once students are safely assembled in this area, teachers/educational assistants will escort students to their classrooms. Older students, once familiar with the staircases that lead to their school section/pod, will make their way up to their classrooms.Once the fleet of buses in the drop off zone is empty, they will exit and the next wave of buses will enter. This will repeat until all students are safely at school.

Afternoon Bus Pick Up

Primary School students taking the school bus are escorted to the undercover playground, where they are supervised until they are led directly to their specific buses. Students will be seated on the bus prior to the arrival of Secondary School students.
Secondary School students make their way to the buses in an orderly fashion before departure. Teachers will be strategically placed to guide and assist students as needed to ensure safety.Buses do not move from the bus bay until a signal is given by the bus coordinator in conjunction with the school's administration. Buses leave the school at approximately 3:45pm.

Parent Drop Off and Pick UpPrimary Student Drop Off

Drive in from Jurong West Street 41 and travel along the road (on the left hand side) until you see the Primary School Drop Off Zone Sign at the East Wing. Turn right when you see this sign. The drop off zone is located adjacent to the first floor canteen. Traffic marshals will guide you to the proper location.

For the first few weeks, Kindergarten and Grade 1 students will be greeted by teachers and EAs in the drop off zone from 8am onwards. Once students disembark, they will be escorted to the second floor canteen. Once your child has exited the vehicle, please follow the loop around and turn left when you reach the driveway.

Parents who have children in both Primary School and Secondary School may drop all children in the Primary Drop Off Zone.

Secondary Student Drop OffThe drop off point for Secondary School students is at the Atrium (front of the campus). From this point, students alight and make their way to class.
Primary Student Pick UpParents who collect their Primary School children must park on campus and pick their child/children up from pod areas after 3:30pm. The Single Subject Teachers (SSTs) will be responsible for the students in the pod areas or designated classrooms until parents arrive. The SSTs will remain in the pod until all students have been picked up or until 3:40pm.

If students are not collected by 3:40pm, they will be escorted to the Primary Office and their parents will be called to pick them up.

Students who participate in the Activities Programme will be in the Atrium at 4:45pm upon completion of their activity. Primary students (SK to Grade 3) will be escorted to Play Area 3 at 4:45pm. Parents are asked to wait here for their child.

Secondary Student Pick UpSecondary School students wait for their parents in the Atrium. Secondary School students participating in Activities after school can be collected from the Atrium when the Activities are finished.

1.10.2 Tanjong Katong Campus

In the morning, parents may drop off their children in the car park area from 8:10am. A staff member will supervise this area on a daily basis and we ask that parents use this area as a drop off point only. As you exit, please follow the school buses to ensure that traffic exits seamlessly and safely.At the end of the school day, to ensure student safety and the efficient loading of the buses, we must reserve space in our parking lot for the buses. Consequently, private vehicles are not allowed to enter or exit the campus between 2:45pm and 3:45pm.Parents who wish to pick up their children are asked to use the public parking area beside the school entrance during this time. You are welcome to enter the campus through the pedestrian gate and then meet your children at the designated pick-up area.Once the school buses have departed, parents may drive onto the campus, park, and pick up their children from the Canteen which is currently the designated pick-up area. CIS provides staff supervision there until 3:45pm. Children who have not been picked up by 3:45pm will be asked to wait in the office until their parent arrives to collect them.

1.11 Contact Us

Please find the contact details for each campus listed below. For information on whom you should contact in your child’s campus or school section, please see the relevant campus/school section.

Lakeside Campus Tanjong Katong Campus
7 Jurong West Street 41 Singapore 649414
Phone: +(65) 6467 1732
Fax: +(65) 6467 1729
Email: admissions@cis.edu.sg
371 Tanjong Katong RoadSingapore 437128
Phone: +65 6345 1573
Fax: +65 6345 4057
Email: admissions@cis.edu.sg
​Section 2: Academics

2.1 CIS Academic Programme

2.1.1 International Baccalaureate Programmes

2.1.2 The International Baccalaureate (IB) Learner Profile

2.1.3 The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme (PYP)

2.1.4 The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (MYP)

2.1.5 International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IB DP)

2.2 Academic Coordinators

2.3 Beyond the Classroom

2.3.1 The Open Minds Programme – Making the World Our Classroom

2.3.2 Excursion Week - Grades 4 to 12

2.3.3 Community Outreach

2.4 Course Write Ups

2.5 Class Sizes

2.5.1 Bilingual Programme:

2.5.2 Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 1:

2.5.3 Grades 2 to 6:

2.5.4 Grades 7 to 12:

2.6 Assessment and Reporting

2.6.1 Parent Teacher Conferences / Three Way Conferences / Student Led Conferences

2.6.2 Report Cards

2.6.3 Transfer Policy

2.7 Homework

2.8 Examinations

2.8.1 - Examination Schedules - Grades 8 to 12 Grades 8 to 10:

2.8.2 Invigilation of External Examinations (for CIS Students Only)

2.9 Academic Honesty Policy

2.9.1 Guidelines

2.9.2 Procedures

2.10 Academic Appeal Process

2.10.1 Rationale

2.10.2 Valid Grounds for Lodging an Appeal include:

2.10.3 Invalid Grounds for Appeal include:

2.10.4 Procedures/Guidelines

2.11 Termination of Enrolment

2.12 Support Programmes

2.13 Language Acquisition

2.14 Books and Supplies

2.15 Lockers

2.15.1 Lakeside Campus

2.15.2 Tanjong Katong Campus

2.16 Programme and Facilities Evaluation

2.16.1 Parent Pulse and Student Pulse Surveys

2.16.2 Secondary School Student Survey (Lakeside Campus)

2.17 Library and Information Services

2.17.1 Library Guides

2.17.2 Borrowing Books

2.17.3 Library Opening Hours

2.17.4 Our Policy for Lost or Damaged Library Books

2.17.5 Contact Details for the School Library


Section 2: Academics

2.1 CIS Academic Programme

As an International Baccalaureate (IB) World School, CIS offers the International Baccalaureate Programmes – Primary Years Programme (PYP) for students in Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 6, the Middle Years Programme (MYP) for students in Grades 7 to 10, and the Diploma Programme (DP) for students in Grades 11 and 12.

2.1.1 International Baccalaureate Programmes

Building on the inquiry-based IB philosophy, students are encouraged to question, discover and communicate through an interdisciplinary and integrated approach to learning. The combination of highly trained teachers, a challenging, yet flexible curriculum and an individual approach to learning, allows students to develop to their full potential. The end result is a quality education for the international student. The goals and philosophy of the three IB programmes are consistent. The MYP naturally follows the PYP, and it also serves as excellent preparation for the IB DP. At CIS, the PYP spans Pre-Kindergarten (Pre-K) to Grade 6, the MYP spans Grades 7 to 10 and the DP is the culminating IB programme for students in Grades 11 and 12. For further information regarding the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme, Middle Years Programme, or Diploma Programme, please visit: www.ibo.org.

2.1.2 The International Baccalaureate (IB) Learner Profile

"The Learner Profile is central to all IB Programmes at CIS. “The aim of all IB programmes is to develop internationally minded people who, recognizing their common humanity and shared guardianship of the planet, help to create a better and more peaceful world.”

(International Baccalaureate Organization 2007)

These are qualities we hope will characterise all members of our school community. These traits are taught and modelled by our teachers and staff and are central to our evaluation of students’ progress.

However, for children to truly embrace these characteristics, they must also be role-modelled by the people most important in their lives – their parents. Please spend some time to become familiar with the Profile Traits. Parents are asked to reinforce these qualities and use the same language at home. You might choose to post this list in your home as a reminder of these 10 important traits.

IB Learners Strive To Be:

INQUIRERS - They develop their natural curiosity. They acquire the skills necessary to conduct inquiry and research and show independence in learning. They actively enjoy learning and this love of learning will be sustained throughout their lives.

KNOWLEDGEABLE - They explore concepts, ideas and issues that have local and global significance. In so doing, they acquire in-depth knowledge and develop understanding across a broad and balanced range of disciplines.

THINKERS - They exercise initiative in applying thinking skills critically and creatively to recognise and approach complex problems, and make reasoned, ethical decisions.

COMMUNICATORS - They understand and express ideas and information confidently and creatively in more than one language and in a variety of modes of communication. They work effectively and willingly in collaboration with others.

PRINCIPLED - They act with integrity and honesty, with a strong sense of fairness, justice and respect for the dignity of the individual, groups and communities. They take responsibility for their own actions and the consequences that accompany them.

OPEN-MINDED - They understand and appreciate their own cultures and personal histories, and are open to the perspectives, values and traditions of other individuals and communities. They are accustomed to seeking and evaluating a range of points of view, and are willing to grow from the experience.

CARING - They show empathy, compassion and respect towards the needs and feelings of others. They have a personal commitment to service, and act to make a positive difference to the lives of others and to the environment.

RISK TAKERS - They approach unfamiliar situations and uncertainty with courage and forethought, and have the independence of spirit to explore new roles, ideas and strategies. They are brave and articulate in defending their beliefs.

BALANCED - They understand the importance of intellectual, physical and emotional balance to achieve personal well-being for themselves and others.

REFLECTIVE - They give thoughtful consideration to their own learning and experience. They are able to assess and understand their strengths and limitations in order to support their learning and personal development.

For further information on the International Baccalaureate Programmes, please visit www.ibo.org.

2.1.3 The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme (PYP)

As an IB World School, the PYP is the organisational framework that drives the explorations at CIS. It is an international programme designed to foster the development of the whole child, both in the classroom and through other means of learning. The PYP focuses on the total growth of the developing child, touching hearts as well as minds and encompassing social, physical, emotional and cultural needs, in addition to academics.

Through their work in the PYP, children:

  • Develop an understanding of important concepts.
  • Conduct research that has local and global significance.
  • Acquire a range of essential skills.
  • Develop positive attitudes towards learning, the environment and other people.
  • Have the opportunity for involvement in responsible action.

In the PYP, students explore 8 broad subject areas, often in ways that transcend conventional subject boundaries. Throughout units of inquiry, teachers and students generate questions with which to conduct inquiry into significant content. It is through this inquiry process that students gain essential knowledge and skills, and are encouraged to engage in responsible action. Students not only acquire knowledge; they examine larger concepts and begin to make meaningful connections in their world. They do all of this in a climate which fosters positive attitudes and develops a concept of internationalism.

2.1.4 The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (MYP)

The International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme (MYP) is a curriculum framework that helps teachers establish goals, focus units of study using inquiry, conceptual understanding and global contexts. It also provides a framework in which teachers conduct assessment. It focuses on the development of the whole child within the context of the Learner Profile.

As students progress to Grade 7 and beyond, they refine the interdisciplinary skills introduced in younger grades through the global contexts and specifically the Approaches to Learning (ATLs). Students in these grades also have more specialist teachers guiding them in the acquisition of skills and processes as well as a framework of concepts. Students will demonstrate increased skill and understanding of the core literacy areas of our current curriculum, and through their increasingly sophisticated inquiry and study skills, they will be encouraged to see the relationships between their studies. Throughout the MYP, students are given ownership of the learning process and are encouraged to actively participate in their own education by setting personal goals and practicing on-going self-evaluation and reflection.

Students are expected to develop a genuine understanding of their own history and culture, and are also encouraged to appreciate the perspectives of other people and other places. Students are expected to have a firm command of language as a means of communication; and to develop a respect for the elegance and richness of other languages and forms of communication. Above all, we expect our students to acquire a genuine love of learning and the skills and discipline to support their education throughout the rest of their lives.

2.1.5 International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme (IB DP)

The International Baccalaureate Diploma (IB DP) is a demanding and academically rigorous programme recognised by universities worldwide. The programme culminates with examinations and is designed for highly motivated secondary school students aged 16 to 19 years. The IB DP curriculum seeks to provide a holistic education whereby candidates reflect their roles as responsible and compassionate local community members and global citizens. As with all IB programmes, the focus is on the development of the whole child within the context of the Learner Profile. This profile strongly encourages students to be: caring, communicators, inquirers, knowledgeable, open-minded, principled, reflective, risk-takers, thinkers, and well balanced.

To be awarded the IB DP, a student must demonstrate a strong commitment to learning, in terms of mastery of subject content and in the development of skills and attitudes necessary for success at the tertiary level. The IB DP is a comprehensive two year international curriculum that generally allows students to fulfil the requirements of their national or state education systems. The Diploma Programme incorporates the best elements of national systems.

2.2 Academic Coordinators

If you have questions about the Primary Years Programme, Middle Years Programme or the Diploma Programme, please contact the respective Coordinator on your child’s campus or your child’s homeroom teacher/teacher advisor.

Deputy Head of School (Curriculum):
Mr. Keith Bland

Lakeside Campus

Tanjong Katong Campus

PYP Coordinators
Rachel Poff
Krystal Romlewski
Archana Prashar

MYP Coordinator (Grades 7 to 10)
Katherine Ross

IB DP Coordinator (Grades 11 and 12)
Christian Chiarenza

PYP Coordinators:
Kirsty Kelly
Tonia Whyte Potter-Mal

Read the school’s Week at a Glance newsletter for information about IB workshops for parents, as well as other suggestions about how parents can be involved and learn more about their children’s programme.

2.3 Beyond the Classroom

CIS provides two significant off-site programmes: Open Minds and Excursion Week. These programmes provide opportunities for students to use inquiry in furthering their understanding of people, community and global issues, places, artifacts and objects outside the boundaries of traditional learning environments. In these programmes, we assist students in developing new skills and insights that will enhance their ability to discuss and analyse their learning, which is so important in becoming a lifelong learner.

These off-site explorations support the transdisciplinary IB curriculum, which enables students to make meaningful links by building relationships between the curriculum, their studies, themselves, and the ‘real world’.

2.3.1 The Open Minds Programme – Making the World Our Classroom

CIS students in Grades 1 to 6 have opportunities each year to participate in Open Minds. Open Minds is an exciting, innovative programme that moves the classroom into real world settings. At sites like the Singapore Zoo, the museums of Singapore, the Jurong Bird Park, and the Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve, students work with their teachers and guest experts to explore the mysteries of these sites. These resource-rich environments spark curiosity, provide challenges and offer variety for personal choices of topics of interest - all elements critical to making learning engaging for children.

The Open Minds Programme enhances the inquiry-based learning that is the keystone of the Primary Years Programme and each investigation relates to a focus or Unit of Inquiry. Experiencing the inquiry process in these settings encourages children to take responsibility for their learning and gives them time to focus on the things that matter to them. Children engage in hands-on, minds-on learning which enables them to build on their prior knowledge, and to achieve a deeper level of understanding of their world and of themselves as learners.

In exciting, real world settings, children put their observation, questioning and critical thinking skills into action to interpret their experience. Research skills important to this inquiry include:

  • Observing
  • Describing
  • Building Relationships
  • Formulating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Developing Concepts
  • Extending Knowledge

Journaling, sketching and reflecting are important to the children’s documentation of their learning. In the Open Minds environment, their skills as writers and artists expand to match the richness of their experiences.

Unique, Valuable, Memorable. Open Minds is the ultimate field experience.

2.3.1.1 Questions?

If you have questions about the Open Minds Programme, please contact the Open Minds Coordinator on your child’s campus or your child’s teacher/teacher advisor.

Lakeside Campus Open Minds Coordinator: Mr. Carl Brown

Tanjong Katong Campus Open Minds Coordinator: Ms. Christa Craats

2.3.2 Excursion Week - Grades 4 to 12

At CIS, Excursion Week is an opportunity to experience meaningful learning and helps students on their journey to becoming informed, purposeful, and active global citizens. Excursion Week is a mandatory part of the regular school programme.

Being outside the traditional boundaries of the classroom gives students the opportunity to use inquiry, the learning process that is the foundation of the IB programme, to further their understanding of people, community and global issues, artifacts and objects. Learning is experiential, powerful, relevant, enjoyable and exciting for students.

In addition to the educational benefits of Excursion Week, and in line with our commitment to develop the whole child, students have the opportunity to obtain key insights into themselves and experience profound emotional growth. They also learn the importance of co-existing with others and develop a deeper understanding of their peers, friends and teachers.

Excursion Week for Grades 4 to 6 has seen students exploring parts of Singapore, Malaysia, and Vietnam (LKS only), with distance being commensurate with age. Students in Grades 7 to 11 have historically ventured to Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Nepal and Malaysia for Excursion Week. Students in Grades 9 and 10 also have the opportunity to participate in two week excursion to Canada. The main emphasis of the excursions is to experience personal challenge, develop international-mindedness, experience community service, and understand how any contribution, no matter how small, can make a difference in the world.

2.3.3 Community Outreach

Through community outreach initiatives, CIS aims to develop caring, well-balanced and responsible young global citizens. Community outreach at CIS is part of our transdisciplinary curriculum and an important part of fostering the IB Learner Profile. Engaging students in community service projects is a wonderful way of encouraging them to be principled, caring and open-minded. We know that learning outside the classroom and helping others encourages empathy and understanding in our students.

2.3.3.1 Questions?

If you have questions about Community Outreach at CIS, please contact the CIS Community Outreach Coordinator, Thomas Hansen or your child’s teacher/teacher advisor.

2.4 Course Write Ups

CIS is an international school that offers programmes for students from 3 to approximately 18 years of age. “Courses” at CIS are commonly referred to as grades. With the exception of the half-day Pre-Kindergarten programme, which is a 3-hour programme, all courses (grades) are offered on a full time basis and students attend school 5 days per week (Monday to Friday).

Details including the minimum entry requirements for each grade level, a brief course (grade) write up and the details of the relevant awarding and/or governing body/bodies can be found in the course write ups that are available on our website. Comprehensive details regarding the curriculum across the whole school (Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 12) can be found in the curriculum section of the website.

2.5 Class Sizes

The average teacher: student ratio at CIS is 1:12. This ratio encompasses all faculty which includes homeroom teachers and specialist teachers, and is not an indication of class size.

All classes are staffed to ensure our students enjoy an optimal learning environment. Class sizes are indicated below.

2.5.1 Bilingual Programme:

  • Junior Kindergarten (JK) - 18 students
  • Senior Kindergarten (SK) - 19 students
  • Grade 1 (LKS and TK) - 22 students
  • Grades 2 to 5 (LKS) - 24 students
  • Grades 2 and 3 (TK) - 24 students

The Bilingual Programme is a full day programme option for students from JK to Grade 5 at Lakeside and up to Grade 3 at Tanjong Katong. Beginning in August 2016, the programme will follow a single language model for alternate days (Chinese one day followed by English the next day). Students will be immersed in each language for 5 days over each two week period. No adjustments will be made for holidays.

The two classes sharing the Chinese and English teachers will be called a ‘Language Nest’, and both teachers will be considered as Homeroom in terms of ensuring students’ academic success and pastoral care. Students will have two learning spaces to ensure total language immersion in each language for each day.

2.5.2 Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 1:

Students in the Early Years programmes (Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 1) enjoy an intimate environment and have a homeroom teacher and full time educational assistant. Class sizes are as follows:

  • Pre-Kindergarten (PK) – 16 students
  • Junior Kindergarten (JK) – 18 students
  • Senior Kindergarten (SK) – 19 students
  • Grade 1 – 22 students

2.5.3 Grades 2 to 6:

Students in Grades 2 to 6 have one homeroom teacher. Class size for students in these grades is 24 students.

2.5.4 Grades 7 to 12:

Students in Grades 7 to 12 have an advisor teacher rather than a homeroom teacher, with individual specialist teachers for each subject. Class size for Grades 7 to 10 is 24 students. Class size for most Grade 11 and 12 classes is 16.

2.6 Assessment and Reporting

In the PYP, there are 5 distinct reporting periods, 2 report cards and three conferences. In the MYP and DP, there are 4 reporting periods, 2 report cards and two conferences.

2.6.1 Parent Teacher Conferences / Three Way Conferences / Student Led Conferences

The purpose of report cards is to encourage growth, enhance learning and communicate information about student progress to the parents, the student, the next teacher and other schools. Student assessment is ongoing and varied. The report card is only one aspect of reporting on the progress of a student. It serves as a snapshot of student achievement at a particular point in time.

Parent Teacher Conferences, Three Way Conferences and Student Led Conferences are an integral part of the reporting process. Three Way Conferences provide an opportunity for students, teachers and parents to identify progress to date and to set future goals and directions. At Student Led Conferences, students from Pre-K to Grade 6 present their progress and achievement to their parents.

We welcome parents to communicate with the teacher at any time if questions or concerns arise. Please make arrangements with your child’s homeroom teacher/teacher advisor to find a mutually convenient time to meet. A crucial part of the CIS community is communication and the partnership between home and school. This partnership is built around the premise of “no surprises”.

Dates for Parent Teacher Conferences, Three Way Conferences and Student Led Conferences are available on the school calendar.

2.6.2 Report Cards

Primary Students

Formal report cards will be sent home with Primary students before the December break and on the last day of school in June. Please see the school calendar for specific reporting dates. If your family plans to leave before report cards are issued, please inform the Main Office on campus and the report card will be mailed to a forwarding address.

Secondary Students

Secondary students will receive four written reports throughout the school year. In addition, parent teacher conferences are held twice per year. However, you are welcome to arrange a meeting with your child’s teacher at any time should the need arise. Please see the school calendar for specific reporting dates. If your family plans to leave before report cards are issued, please inform the Main Office on campus and the report card will be mailed to a forwarding address.

Additional Report Cards

If a family requires report cards from previous years, the Administrative Officers in each division/campus must be informed two weeks prior to the date the report cards are to be collected in order to ensure they are prepared prior to your departure.

The cost of a report card transcript is S$5.00. If additional transcripts requested need to be posted, parents will be charged postage for the additional copies.

2.6.3 Transfer Policy

CIS will allow students to transfer from one course to another if the school assesses that the student is more suited academically and emotionally for enrolment in another course offered by the school.

If the student transfers to a new course, the student agrees that the transfer shall not be deemed, a withdrawal from the school and the refund policy in the student contract shall not apply. If a student does not agree to be enrolled in the course offered by the school and withdraws from the school, all fees paid shall be refunded in accordance with the refund policy set out in clause 2 of the student contract. In the event of a change of course as mentioned above, a supplemental contract shall be executed between CIS and the parents/legal guardian/student to reflect the change of course and change in fees where applicable. All the other terms and conditions in the student contract shall remain unchanged.

All requests for transfer of course must be approved by the Academic Board who will assess the request and respond within two weeks of receiving the request.

2.7 Homework

Homework assignments are used to reinforce new concepts and skills and to help build desirable work and study habits. Homework will be assigned according to the age and needs of students. The amount of time that students spend doing homework will vary somewhat from day to day, and with the ability and diligence of the individual learner and the student’s programme and grade level.

To read more about types of homework for your child, please refer to the relevant campus/school section segment in this handbook.

2.8 Examinations

2.8.1 - Examination Schedules - Grades 8 to 12

Grades 8 to 10:

Examinations for MYP students will be held between 29 May and 2 June, 2017. The examinations will be in Language and Literature, Science, Mathematics and Individuals and Societies, and will provide an opportunity for students to prepare and study for this form of assessment.

Grade 11 IB DP:

Semester 1 – 5 December to 9 December, 2016

Semester 2 – 29 May to 2 June, 2017

Grade 12 IB DP:

Semester 1 – 10 January to 23 January, 2017

Semester 2 – 28 April to 19 May, 2017

2.8.2 Invigilation of External Examinations (for CIS Students Only)

When a CIS student is required to complete entrance examinations for another school, and parents request that they take the test and be supervised at CIS, the following protocols will apply:

  1. The classroom teacher will liaise with the respective divisional office or campus to book a half day supply teacher to supervise the writing of the exams. If there is more than one child in the same family needing exam writing supervision, please let your child’s teacher know as they can be done at the same time. Upon confirmation, a room in the main reception area (or whatever room is suitable for your child) will be booked.
  2. Since the entrance exams are generally emailed or sent to the classroom teacher, he/she will give them to the supply teacher and review the general instructions on the day of the exam.
  3. Parents will be responsible for covering the cost of the half day supply teacher ($90.00 + GST) as well as the cost for getting the entrance examinations to the next school. The payment can be made by parents on the day of the exam at the Finance counter in the Main Office, and a receipt will be issued. Our Finance department will pay the Supply Teacher for their services directly.

It is important that these tests are kept secure/confidential and mailed/couriered by CIS. Parents should not review the exams before or after completion.

2.9 Academic Honesty Policy

One of the paramount goals of CIS is to foster a growth of the ethically responsible student. This is evident in our placement of integrity and responsibility among our core values, and in our learner profile attribute of principled behaviour. Falling under this tenet is the importance of educating students regarding academic honesty: what it is, why it matters, and what the consequences are if one engages in dishonest behaviour. The following policy applies to all students in Grades 4 to 12.

2.9.1 Guidelines

1. Academic honesty is defined as:

  • Ensuring that one’s work presented as one’s own is entirely one’s own
  • Giving credit to one’s sources when borrowing others’ words or ideas through proper documentation

2. Academic dishonesty is defined as:

  • The intentional or unintentional use of another’s words or ideas without acknowledging this use, also known as plagiarism.

3. Plagiarism is defined as:

  • Copying word for word: copying directly from a text, magazine, internet site, newspapers, or any other source without giving proper credit to the person (or group) who wrote it.
  • Paraphrasing: borrowing another person’s (or group’s) ideas and rewriting it in one’s own words without giving the proper credit to the person (or group) who wrote it.
  • Use of an Idea: adapting or taking another person’s (or group’s) idea(s) and not giving proper credit to the person (or group).
  • Cheating on quizzes, tests, and/or exams: includes, but is not limited to the following:
    • bringing answers or notes into the test room and using them as a reference
    • copying answers or notes from another student
    • sharing answers by any means with another student
    • using unauthorised technology to assist with answers
    • copying or sharing homework not specifically assigned as collaborative
    • taking credit for work that one did not do

4. The citation and referencing style adopted by CIS is that of the Modern Language Association (MLA).

5. Understanding what constitutes academic dishonesty is an ongoing process for all students and is addressed through training and coaching in a variety of developmentally appropriate contexts.

6. Students are expected to give full credit for the usage of others’ words or ideas.

2.9.2 Procedures

Academic dishonesty is dealt with on a case-by-case basis by teachers and/or the school administration. The underlying concept is to educate students about making the right choices. Breaches of academic dishonesty range in severity, and therefore the details of each case are thoroughly ascertained and carefully considered. Consequences range from counselling to dismissal from the school.

The following steps are adhered to when considering a case of academic dishonesty:

  1. The teacher meets with the student to understand the situation, and to counsel the student as necessary. The teacher informs the student’s Homeroom Teacher or Teacher Advisor, and the Grade Level Lead (GLL).
  2. The student redoes the assignment (a prerequisite for writing the final exam, if applicable).
  3. The GLL may or may not request a meeting with the student’s parent(s).
  4. If the Homeroom Teacher/Advisor and GLL determine that the case is resolved, no further action is required.
  5. If the Homeroom Teacher/Advisor and GLL determine that the case requires further action, the following steps are taken:
    1. The GLL informs the principal of the incident, and indicates whether this is the student's first, or multiple, offence
    2. If deemed necessary, the principal contacts the student for an interview
    3. The student’s parent(s) is/are informed of the incident by the division principal, and may be required to meet with the principal in person
    4. The principal reviews all relevant details, including the number of incidents and the developmental age of the student, and makes a decision, in consultation with the relevant teacher and the GLL, which may lead to:
      • The student being placed on academic probation, with clearly outlined expectations
      • The student being required to complete an additional assignment/assessment, set by the teacher, GLL, or principal
      • The student being recommended for dismissal from the school*
      • * Recommendations for dismissal are reviewed by the Examination Board for approval.
      • If approved by the Examination Board, it is forwarded to the Head of School for final endorsement.
      • If not approved, the Examination Board recommends an alternative course of action and forwards it to the division principal; the principal and Examination Board must come to a consensus on the course of action; in cases where consensus cannot be reached, the Head of School makes the final decision.
  1. In the case of DP examinations, the protocols set forth by the International Baccalaureate are followed.
  2. The decision is communicated to the student and his/her parent(s) by the division principal in person; and in writing by the Examination Board.
  3. A record of the incident and/or the notification letter are placed in the student’s file, signed by the student, parent(s), principal and in the case of dismissal, the Examination Board.

2.10 Academic Appeal Process

2.10.1 Rationale

Assessment is an ongoing process. Please see the Assessment and Reporting policy above for more information on assessment at CIS.

Should a student or parent disagree with an awarded grade/level of achievement, the student or parent must first contact the respective teacher directly. This allows the teacher an opportunity to explain the grade/level of achievement and how it was awarded. If there is still a concern about the grade/level of achievement, the student or parent should initiate the academic appeal process via email to his/her respective principal. A student’s final result reflects both their most consistent and most recent achievement levels.

An appeal is a request for a review of a decision made by an academic faculty member. A student or parent may only request a review of the decision made by an academic faculty member if grounds are valid. Academic Appeal results in one of two outcomes: the grade/level of achievement remains the same or the grade/level of achievement is changed.

2.10.2 Valid Grounds for Lodging an Appeal include:

  • Grade/level of achievement not determined by assignment/assessment method that was specified by the teacher
  • Work handed in on time and not marked
  • Alleged disadvantage through lack of feedback
  • Alleged bias affecting the assignment/assessment
  • Alleged incorrect advice from staff teaching the unit in question
  • Approved accommodations not provided
  • Any other grounds accepted by the division principal

2.10.3 Invalid Grounds for Appeal include:

  • Objectives (the expected learner outcomes) of the unit in question
  • Assessment methods approved for the unit (the type of assessment)
  • Standard required to achieve particular grades/levels of achievement (assignment/assessment rubrics)
  • Personal or medical problems
  • Financial implications of not passing the unit
  • Grades/levels of achievement received by student in other units
  • Amount of work done and penalty imposed for plagiarism in accordance with the school’s Academic Honesty Policy

There is no right of appeal against decisions made by the Examination Board.

A student whose case is under consideration by the Examination Board shall have the right to continue with his/her course until such time as a decision is reached, to ensure that he/she is not academically disadvantaged.

2.10.4 Procedures/Guidelines

  1. Students or parents must submit an Academic Appeal Form to the division principal within 3 days of the release of results; if the division principal is unavailable, the form should be submitted to the Deputy Head of School - Curriculum, or the Head of School.
  2. The division principal reviews the request and, if valid, forwards the appeal to the Examination Board for review.
  3. In reviewing the appeal, the Examination Board considers, where applicable, the following:
    • The student’s or parent’s statement of appeal
    • The student’s or parent’s extraordinary circumstances statement
    • The student’s or parent’s verbal presentation to the Examination Board
    • The examiner’s or teacher’s report
    • The principal’s report
  4. Following the review, the Examination Board approves or denies the appeal. A simple majority is required for the decision.
  5. If approved, the Head of Academics notifies the student and his/her parent/s in writing within seven days of the decision being made.
  6. The division principal ensures that the change is recorded in the official student record within four weeks of the decision being made, as per the changes to student records policy.
  7. If denied, the Head of Academics notifies the student and his/her parent/s in writing within seven days of the decision being made.
  8. The decision made by the Examination Board is final.
  9. A copy of the Academic Appeal Policy may be found here.

2.11 Termination of Enrolment

Student acceptance is based on the assumption that the programme offered at CIS is the best available to meet the needs of the student. When, in the judgment of the professional staff, the CIS programme and personnel resources do not adequately meet the needs of the student, a recommendation for termination of the enrolment will be made by the Divisional Principal, in consultation with the Head of School, if applicable.

This decision may be appealed to the Management within one week from the day on which such decision is communicated to the student and/ or parents. Any unconsumed Tuition Fees, and Support Programme Fees (if applicable) will be refunded

2.12 Support Programmes

Participation in the English Language Learner Programme (ELL) and the Learning Support Programme (LS) is mandatory, if, after student assessment, CIS is of the view that the student requires one or both of these support programmes.

2.13 Language Acquisition

From Junior Kindergarten to Grade 10, students specialise in either French or Chinese. At Lakeside campus students in Grades 1 to 8 may choose to specialise in beginner Spanish. Students will receive daily lessons (or equivalent) in the language chosen.

An Accelerated Chinese Programme will be available at LKS to students entering Grade 6 in August 2017. Students exiting the Grade 5 Bilingual Programme, or those who meet the language criteria will be able to move into this programme before the transition to Grade 7.

A visual representation of all language offerings and pathways can be viewed here.

2.14 Books and Supplies

Text books that are used in class are loaned to students during the school year. Students are responsible for each textbook on loan and must pay for damaged or lost books. End of semester report cards will not be released if money is due for a class or library book. Core stationery supplies are provided for the students at the commencement of the year or when they enrol. New exercise books are provided when required during the year. Students in Grades 7 and above are required to supply stationery that includes pens, pencils, mathematical instruments and lined notepads throughout the year.

2.15 Lockers

2.15.1 Lakeside Campus

All students in Grades 4 to 12 are provided with their own locker. Students are strongly advised to ensure that their valuables are kept in the lockers and that the lockers remain locked at all times. Students will need to purchase a lock prior to the commencement of the school year.

2.15.2 Tanjong Katong Campus

All students in Grades 4 to 6 are provided with their own locker. Students are strongly advised to ensure that their valuables are kept in the lockers and that the lockers remain locked at all times. Students will need to purchase a lock prior to the commencement of the school year.

2.16 Programme and Facilities Evaluation

2.16.1 Parent Pulse and Student Pulse Surveys

Each year, parents are invited to participate in an annual survey called the “Parent Pulse”, while students (Grades 7 to 12) are invited to participate in the annual "Student Pulse Survey". These surveys are launched in March each school year, with the purpose of collecting feedback on: academic programmes, sporting and arts programmes, extracurricular activities, campus facilities, teachers and staff, etc. Feedback from these surveys will be shared with parents early in the following school year. This feedback (after analysis) is used in the School’s ongoing improvement plans.

2.16.2 Secondary School Student Survey (Lakeside Campus)

Each year, students from Kindergarten to Grade 12 are invited to provide feedback to evaluate the programmes they are enrolled in, course content, teachers’ performance, etc.

2.17 Library and Information Services

The CIS library focuses on providing supportive services and programme collaboration. Global information literacy and literature that reflect our multicultural school community are integral to active, authentic life-long learning and inquiry.

Our library staff provide a wide variety of resources that are appropriate for the range of age and language abilities of our students, mindful of the diverse, multicultural population, and support the IB curriculum that is taught in our classrooms. The library is a changing and dynamic place and is an intrinsic part of the busy daily life of the CIS community.

Parents and students can enter our online library space via the “Libraries” button on their My.CIS dashboard. From here, there is access to catalogues of the resources in our libraries as well as databases, including online encyclopedias and repositories of journal articles to which we subscribe.

2.17.1 Library Guides

Our librarians have created Library Guides to bring together the physical world and the virtual world to give parents and students access to information, research and online data at all times. There you will find resources designed to complement your child’s education journey. The library guides include everything from reading recommendations for various grade levels, to instructions on using online databases and tips on how to encourage your child to read.

Use the links below to find the relevant library or access the guides via the “Libraries” button on your My.CIS dashboard.

TK Library Guide
Lakeside Pre-K to Grade 3
Lakeside Grades 4 to 6
Lakeside Grade 10 - Personal Project

2.17.2 Borrowing Books

Students are able to borrow books during their class book exchange period and may also drop in to exchange or renew books at any time. Parents may open a borrowing account with the library and borrow 2 additional books per child enrolled at CIS.

  • Students in Pre-K may borrow one book for use in their classroom.
  • JK and SK students may borrow one independent reading book.
  • Grade 1-3 may borrow two independent reading books.
  • Grade 4-12 may borrow three independent reading books.
  • Students in the bilingual programme may borrow additional books in Chinese, according to their grade level.

Books for Literature Circles, Novel/Genre Studies and DP courses are in addition to their independent reading books. All students are also permitted to borrow one additional book, in their mother-tongue, from our World Languages Collection.

Students in Kindergarten to Grade 3 are required to have a CIS book bag. It is strongly recommended that students in Grades 3 and up use a CIS book bag.

2.17.3 Library Opening Hours

Lakeside Campus: 7:45am to 4:30pm
Tanjong Katong Campus: 7:45am to 4:45pm

Before and after school students in Grade 3 and below must be accompanied by a parent/guardian.

2.17.4 Our Policy for Lost or Damaged Library Books

Books can become lost or damaged (including water damage) despite students’ and families’ best efforts to care for them. However, part of being a responsible student is taking care of school property. If a book is lost or damaged beyond repair, the person who signed out the book is responsible for paying the replacement charge. If the book is found and returned to the Library no later than September 1 of the following school year, a refund will be issued.

2.17.5 Contact Details for the School Library

Lakeside:
Ms. Lisa Miller (Head Library and Secondary School Librarian)
Ms. Melissa Cooper (Primary School)

Tanjong Katong:
Ms. Nadine Bailey

​Section 6: General Policies and Procedures

Section 6: General Policies and Procedures

6.1 Birthday Party Protocol

6.1.1 Food Choices

6.1.2 Food Safety

6.2 Attendance Policy

6.2.1 Procedures / Guidelines

6.2.2 Sign-Out Procedures

6.2.3 Temporary Leave Form

6.3 Staying on Campus (Pre-Kindergarten to Grade 6)

6.4 Student Code of Conduct

6.4.1 Rationale

6.4.2 Offences and Consequences

6.5 Electronic Equipment

6.6 Dress Code

6.6.1 School Uniform

6.6.2 Physical Education Uniform

6.7 Grooming Code

6.8 Dress Code for Field Trips

6.9 Hats and Indoor Shoes

6.9.1 No Hat, Play in the Shade Policy

6.9.2 Indoor Shoes

6.10 Bikes and Scooters

6.11 Guests on Campus

6.12 Book Bags

6.13 Lost and Found

6.14 School Telephone Use

6.15 Elevator Use (Lakeside Only)

6.16 Information Technology

6.17 Network System Accounts

6.18 Acceptable (Network) Use Policy (AUP)

6.19 Laptop/Tablet Policy

6.20 Student Absence Notification

6.21 Mode of Notification

6.22 Change in Ownership / Management

6.23 Change in Contact Details – Phone, Email, Residential Address

6.24 Representative’s Responsibilities

6.25 Confidentiality

6.25.1 General

6.25.2 Personal Data Protection Policy

6.26 Feedback and Dispute Resolution

6.26.1 Feedback and Complaints

6.26.2 Dispute Resolution

6.27 Banned or Controlled Substances

6.27.1 Banned or Controlled Substances Policy

6.28 Use of Student Work/Photographs and Videos

6.29 Kindergarten Programme

6.30 After School Hours and Non-School Days

6.31 Child Protection Policy and Protocol

6.32 Liability for Student Property

6.33 Provision of Notice

6.34 Severability of Provisions

6.35 Successors and Assigns

6.36 Governing Law and Dispute Resolution

6.37 Force Majeure

6.38 Counterparts

​Section 12: Lakeside Secondary School (Grades 7 to 12)

Section 12: Lakeside Secondary School (Grades 7 to 12)

12.1 Welcome from the Secondary School Principal, Glen Radojkovich

12.2 Administrative Information - Secondary School

12.3 Secondary School Programme Overview

12.4 School Hours

12.5 Lakeside Secondary School Map

12.6 Locations on Campus

12.7 Lakeside Secondary School Timetable

12.8 The International Baccalaureate (IB) Learner Profile

12.9 Student Services

12.10 SMART Period

12.11 Pastoral Care and Counselling

12.12 Teacher Advisor Programme

12.13 Student Success Programme

12.13.1 Who Is Involved?

12.13.2 How Does It Work?

12.13.3 Programmes

12.14 Library Information Services

12.15 Examination Schedules

12.16 Academic Appeal Process

12.17 Secondary School Promotion Guidelines/Graduation Requirements

12.18 Homework Policy

12.19 Academic Honesty Policy

12.20 Orientation for New Students and Parents

12.21 Secondary Information Night

12.22 Excursion Week

12.23 Attendance Policy and Procedures

12.24 Extension of Holiday Periods

12.25 Emergency Contact Information

12.26 Secondary School Code of Conduct

12.27 Banned or Controlled Substances

12.28 Headphones, Cell Phones and Handheld Electronics

12.29 School Uniform Policy and Grooming Code - Secondary School

12.29.1 Dress Code for School Uniform

12.29.2 Dress Code for Physical Education

12.29.3 Dress Code for Field Trips

12.29.4 Grooming Code

12.29.5 Consequences

12.30 Books and Supplies

12.31 After School Hours and Non-School Days

12.32 Guests on Campus

12.33 Lost and Found

12.34 Exit Procedure

12.35 Health Care Coordinator

12.36 Medication

12.37 Canteen Services

12.38 Lockers

12.39 Bus Behaviour Regulations

12.40 Yearbooks

12.41 Confidentiality

12.42 Use of Student Work/Photographs and Videos

12.43 Feedback and Dispute Resolution

12.44 Information Technology

12.45 Digital Literacy and Digital Citizenship

12.46 Network System Accounts

12.47 Acceptable (Network) Use Policy (AUP)

12.48 Laptop Policy and Requirements

​Section 13: Glossary of Terms